Did you know that about 71% of the surface of this planet is covered by salt water? Apparently, scientist have concluded that the ocean (underworld) is considered one of the largest sources of organisms on the planet.
And let’s not forget the Artic and Antarctic oceans which have very different physical conditions, which lead to different communities. Both of which are extremely cold.
Spanish translation: AGUA
Water is the substance that surrounds all marine organisms and is a necessity for most tropical plants and animals to exist within the environment.
It is the medium in which various chemical reactions take place, both inside and outside living organisms.
In High School we learnt that pure water is a very simple chemical compound composed of two atoms of hydrogen (H2) joined to one oxygen (O) atom. Therefore symbolically, water is H2O.
The bonding between the two hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom is done via electrons. Each hydrogen shares a single electron with the oxygen.
In this example, we notice that oxygen receives the two electrons needed to complete its outer electron shell, and each hydrogen the one needed for its outer shell.
Now seawater is water in which a variety of solids and gases are dissolved. Cool!
For example, a 1,000-gram (g) sample of seawater will contain about 35g of dissolved compounds, which collectively is called salts. According to my collective data, 96.5% of seawater is water and 3.5% is dissolved substances.
Dissolved substances include inorganic salts, organic compounds derived or resulting from living organisms and dissolved gases.
Seawater is slightly alkaline, usually in the pH range of 7.5-8.4. Acidity and alkalinity are measured on a logarithmic scale of 1-14 pH units.
The abundance of alkaline solutions are solutions that have large numbers of OH‾ ions and few H⁺ ions.
Conversely or in contrast, the higher the concentration of H⁺ ions on this scale, the lower is the pH value; hence, low pH values indicate acid conditions.
The neutral point is pH 7 where equal numbers of both ions occur.
Although studies show that pure water is neutral in pH, the dissociation of the water molecules produces equal numbers of H⁺ and OH‾ ions, the presence of CO2 and the strongly alkaline ions-sodium, potassium and calcium in ocean waters tends to change this.
Major subdivisions of the World’s Ocean (The Underworld)
I’ve recently learnt that there are major subdivisions of the world’s ocean. The entire area of the open water is known as the pelagic realm consisting of organisms living in the open sea, away from the bottom.
In contrast, we have the benthic realm, comprising of organisms and zones of the sea bottom or underworld.
The photic or euphotic zone is that part of the pelagic realm that is lighted. The permanently dark water mass below the photic zone is the aphotic zone.
The pelagic part of the aphotic zone can be subdivided into zones that succeed each other vertically.
The mesopelagic is the uppermost of the aphotic areas and will be the zone which I refer to the most in the proceeding research exploration.
Bioluminescence Tours is one of Cayman’s natural attractions and can be experienced in the beautiful district of North Side.
You can visit the Bio Bay and watch as the waters glow from the comfort of a safe boat or kayak.
Bioluminescence is a widespread phenomenon found in the sea but is not only confined to deep-sea organisms.
Many people have observed it in the form of “phosphorescent seas” which results from light production by living organisms.
Bioluminescence is widespread but it is in the deep-sea mesopelagic organisms that bioluminescence reaches its highest and most complex development.
In the mesopelagic zone, as many as 90% of the organisms have the ability to produce light. The prevalence of bioluminescence in the deep sea and the large numbers of organisms that can produce light have been documented by photos and videos.
If we think of well-known studies of other such organisms as fireflies, we can relate the same mechanism being used by aquatic organisms.
In the reaction, a substrate called luciferin (creepy) is oxidized in the presence of the enzyme luciferase to produce a molecule that emits light (interesting but real creepy).
I regard the concept as creepy because it bears similarities to Lucifer or satan in the bible which also means (light bearer).
Speaking of bible, did you also know that Lucifer (Satan) was originally an angel of worship? He was probably more beautiful and radiated even more light than all the bioluminescence creatures combine.
In the book of Ezekiel 28:13 it states,
“13 You were in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone adorned you: carnelian, chrysolite and emerald, topaz, onyx and jasper, lapis lazuli, turquoise and beryl. Your settings and mountings were made of gold; on the day you were created they were prepared.”
It continues to tell us from verses 14- 19 of how Lucifer became proud and was eventually thrown out of heaven,
“14 You were anointed as a guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. You were on the holy mount of God; you walked among the fiery stones.
15 You were blameless in your ways from the day you were created till wickedness was found in you.
16 Through your widespread trade you were filled with violence, and you sinned. So, I drove you in disgrace from the mount of God, and I expelled you, guardian cherub, from among the fiery stones.
17 Your heart became proud on account of your beauty, and you corrupted your wisdom because of your splendor. So, I threw you to the earth; I made a spectacle of you before kings.
18 By your many sins and dishonest trade you have desecrated your sanctuaries. So, I made a fire come out from you, and it consumed you, and I reduced you to ashes on the ground in the sight of all who were watching.
19 All the nations who knew you are appalled at you; you have come to a horrible end and will be no more.”
In the same way I see the resemblance in the deep-sea organisms’ way of producing light and the actual formation of its organs.
Scientist say that the oxidizing of luciferin and luciferase may differ from organism to organism, but the reaction is still similar.
The spectrum of color that is produced varies from species to species, but in general, in the mesopelagic zone, the wavelength ranges between 460-480 nanometers.
It is also said that a large number of deep-sea organisms are capable of producing light, but that they also have developed the most elaborate organs for doing so.
These light producing organs are called photophores and are particularly abundant in fishes and squids, but are present in other invertebrates as well.
The largest number of animals with photophores is found in the upper area of the deep sea-the mesopelagic zones and organisms with bioluminescence decreases in the deepest parts of the sea or underworld.
Underworld (Blood Wars) Protect the Bloodline
Speaking of Underworld, I should also mention that in the movie Underworld, we also had a prime example of an individual whose lust for power also came to a tragic end. See a picture and description of Semira’s personality below:
Semira is described as being fierce and incredibly ambitious. She displays intense loyalty to Viktor along with a level of coldness, ruthlessness, and cruelty that he may very well have admired.
She is an intelligent and manipulative woman, but suffers from excessive pride and arrogance, which are her undoing. Despite being a member of the Eastern Coven’s Elite Council she seems to be a warrior at heart.
At one point Alexia states that Semira’s desire for power is growing more insane everyday. Semira, in spite of her close bond with Viktor, comes to view the Vampire obsession with “purity” as being a weakness that holds them back; although she despises Lycans, she herself admits that she admires their ability to evolve and adapt.
As a result, she seeks to “evolve” as well, becoming a Vampire-Corvinus Strain Hybrid to increase her strength and power.
However, her desire for this power proves to be her undoing: seeing proof of her new power in the form of her new UV immunity she allowed herself to be distracted for a crucial moment in battle which leads to David landing a potentially fatal blow.